Planting, Holding, and Harvesting Tree Apples An apple is a plant in the form of a shrub or short tree with razor-sharp branches and simple ovate leaves of small and short heads. Apple buds include vegetative or simple buds that produce shoots and its fertile buds are mixed reproductive buds and when they wake up, they produce five flowers and about 7-8 leaves.
Apples generally have four types of branches: Nark, Lamborghini, Brandy, and Sikh. Narek are vegetative branches that form at the top of the tree canopy and must be pruned from a height of 40-30 cm each year.
Planting, holding, and harvesting apple trees / Botany:
Apple is a plant in the form of a shrub or short tree with razor-sharp branches and simple ovate leaves of Baba Dalbar and small, short heads. Apple buds include vegetative or simple buds that produce branches and its fertile buds are mixed reproductive buds and when they wake up, they produce five flowers and about 7-8 leaves.) Apples generally have There are four types of branches: Nark, Lambord, Brandi, and Sikh. Nark are vegetative branches that are formed at the top of the tree canopy and should be pruned every year from a height of 40-30 cm.
Lambord is a fertile branch and at its tip a reproductive bud is formed and the length of these branches is 10-12 cm.
Randy is also a reproductive branch and its length is about 15-20 cm.
Spikes are short branches that are between 3-7 cm long and in the second year begin to produce reproductive buds at the tip of the branch. Most apple products are produced on spores.
Today, in cultivating apple orchards, thorn-producing cultivars that produce abundant thorns are used.
Apple is the largest grain fruit in temperate regions. Apples are native to the Caucasus, Turkmenistan, and the former Soviet Union. Western Europe, the United States, Canada, Japan, China, France, Germany, Turkey, India, and Iran are among the major apple-producing countries.
- Planting, holding, and harvesting apple trees / Apple cultivars:
- In order to be able to choose the best figure to suit the conditions of each region, it is necessary
- He paid attention to factors such as climate, garden location, pest and disease resistance, and the market.
Foreign cultivars in Iranian gardens
Lebanese Yellow Apple (Golden Delicious):
It is the most important current figure of the country. In hot and dry areas, the leaves fall before autumn. Pre-harvest shedding is relatively high. It responds well to thinning to increase the quality of the fruit and prevent it from being underloaded next year. It is sensitive to rust, especially in wet and cold areas, and to black spot disease, and is somewhat resistant to white spot.
Lebanese Red Apple or Red Delicious:
It is the most important commercial figure in the world and is located in Iran after Golden and the reason is the lack of sufficient facilities to store it.
It tends to yearn. So thinning is necessary. Suitable for summer areas with long summers, cool nights, clear skies without dust and frost on arrival.
It is more sensitive to white than yellow apple. In wet areas it is affected by apple canker but is less sensitive to black spots and ticks.
Apple is green, sour in taste and late ripening, which retains its properties well in the cold house. It is sensitive to whites and ticks, but has a moderate resistance to the disease that black apple is moderate
It has a yellowish-white flesh, tender and somewhat firm, very juicy with a slight sourness and slightly fragrant. Early fruiting is a moderate but regular crop. It needs annual pruning to rejuvenate and produce fruiting horns
- It has whitish green flesh and firm texture.
- To whitefly and disease where black apple is somewhat resistant but susceptible to apple canker
It has yellowish green flesh, relatively firm, crispy and very juicy tissue with a pleasant and aromatic pickle.
It has a round shape and rough skin covered with a kind of crust and yellow color mixed with green with a coating of red-orange.
Should not be planted in areas with variable relative humidity or very dry
It has a round shape and is slightly wide and often with two unbalanced halves. Lenses are marked with a white spot. The fruit is greenish white, juicy, sour and sweet.
Planting, holding, and harvesting apple trees / cultivars suitable for different regions of the country
Rose apples group, Ahar summer apples, Ghezel Alma, Shafiabadi apples, Mashhad apple apples.
Autumn and winter apples:
Mashhadi Abbasi apple – Zanuz apple – Shahi flower – Daryan – Akhlamd – Shemirani.
Planting, holding, and harvesting apple trees / Climatic conditions
Apple tree is cold, deciduous or deciduous. It is therefore naturally distributed in the temperate cold climate in both the northern and southern hemispheres. But due to adaptation, it is now published on five continents.
The majority of these gardens range from 33 to 55 degrees latitude in the northern hemisphere and to a lesser extent in the southern hemisphere. In these areas, the winter cold is so great that breeding cultivars are enough to break the hibernation period without being damaged by the cold.
Spring cold is another climatic factor that in some areas and in some years causes apple blossoms to die due to late cold. Of course, different apple cultivars are less exposed to spring frosts than other stone varieties such as apricots and peaches due to late flowering.
Flower bud resistance to sub-zero degrees and duration of cold varies in different cultivars.
There are several ways to prevent late spring frosts, some of which are:
- Selection of late flowering cultivars
- Create smoke to reduce radiation
- Heating the garden with garden heaters
- Use of wind generating machines
- Create windbreaks around the garden
- Bleaching tree trunks
- Sprinkle water on the trees
- Use of chemical compounds such as NAA which causes a 1-2 week delay in flowering time.
The appropriate position and location of the garden means:
Creating orchards along forests, rivers, brooks, and beaches that have moist air and high dew points, as well as northern slopes that heat up later in early spring, delaying bud awakening.
- B) Choosing the construction site of the garden:
One of the factors affecting the economics of apple cultivation is the superiority of outputs over inputs. Inputs include the following:
Economic value of land (physical and physiological quality, distance to place of use and distance to matter)
Cost of equipment and items needed for planting, holding and harvesting the crop
Shipping, product perishability
Relative value of product and marketing
- C) Soil characteristics of the region:
Apple tree can grow in any soil that is fertile and at least 1-2 meters deep, but lemon soils that have enough organic matter are more suitable for it.
Also, the construction site of the garden should be such that the groundwater level is not too high; Because on the one hand, apples prevent the roots from spreading and penetrating into the ground, and on the other hand, due to the extreme moisture of soil particles, they prevent oxygen from reaching the roots of the trees.
In general, apple roots, compared to other types of cold fruit trees, show more resistance to humid conditions and a little soil air, although the degree of resistance in different cultivars and species are different from each other, and apples should not be considered favorable to these conditions. The soil was neglected.
One of the best methods in wet soil conditions is to put the apple orchard under evergreen cover. Grasses planted under trees increase the infiltration of air into the soil and consume excess moisture. However, the uptake of soil nitrogen by the roots of these plants should not be neglected and some amount of nitrogen fertilizer should be added in this system. (5)
Planting, holding, and harvesting apple trees / planting system
Determine the distance between trees by factors such as:
Tree Growth – Intensity and Weakness of Light:
In cloudy areas, distance is considered more.
In more fertile and deeper lands, distance is considered more.
In areas with high land prices, the distance is considered less to use more land.
In shortening bases, the distance is considered less than long bases.
Type of pruning:
Depending on the form of dwarfism or leg length).
Trees should be planted in such a way that when they mature, pest control and other easy and efficient gardening operations can be done.
The conventional square design is a waste of time and makes it difficult to remove temporary trees.
Various rectangular designs are more satisfactory than square designs because by planting more trees in each row, the load level can be increased. It is also possible to create a suitable distance for the movement of mechanized devices by intermittent removal of temporary trees in each row.
Generally, on strong foundations in one hectare of land, depending on the cultivar, depth and fertility of the soil, about 1000-400 trees are planted at intervals of about 7-5 meters. And on weak foundations, about 17000-1700 trees are planted. The planting distance of dwarf trees is selected according to the composition of the base and cultivar and varies.
Without short-legged stems, high-density trees should not be planted because excessive vegetative power requires high pruning, which reduces yield and quality.
Today, with a wide variety of growth control bases, it is possible to cultivate high-density trees. The high initial cost of dense cultivation can be quickly astonished by the earlier high yield and low production cost per tree.
In sloping lands, the terrace method is used. The direction of the terraces is perpendicular to the slope of the ground. In narrow slopes of terraces more and rejuvenation of old gardens in steep apples the width of terraces is less.
The current mistake is to rejuvenate old gardens by planting young trees alternately between the old trees in the rows, so that while the young trees are established and growing, the old trees are pruned and finally planted with Also delete.
Cause of terrace failure:
But in practice this method has failed because:
Young trees are overshadowed by older trees and suffocated by weeds because they are harvested or improperly irrigated. Also, in most old gardens, planting intervals for better land use are wrong.
Planting young trees among the trees also forces the new garden to use the same unfavorable distance. Therefore, the best way to replant is to remove a few rows of old trees each year and replant at better intervals.
After preparing the map and marking the place where the seedlings are planted, we start digging the pit. The pit should be such that the root is freely placed in the soil and does not come into contact with the wall. In heavy soils, the pit is larger and in light soils, the pit is considered smaller. The depth of the pit also depends on the base.
Tree roots should be kept in water or moistened before planting. After half of the pit is filled with soil, clean soil (preferably topsoil) should be pounded around the roots.
Garbage, weeds, manure and other organic residues should be kept out of the pit as they may damage the roots.
More importantly, fertilizers should not be poured into the pit when planting as they may completely destroy the roots. If the soil is weak, a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer can be applied as a surface spread.
If general growth and leaf color are poor, decomposition of leaf samples in August will indicate fertilizer requirements.
To prevent sunburn of tree trunks, a tree is planted slightly inclined to the southwest. (7)
Watering systems :
Operation after planting seedlings
The operations that need to be done immediately after planting the seedlings are: Irrigation – trimming, the initial pruning should irrigate the trees immediately after hardening the soil around the roots unless the soil is moist. After hardening the soil, we fill the rest of the pit with loose soil. (7)
In conventional culture systems, guardians are used. But in scaffolding and flat systems, long wooden or iron guardrails are used.
In addition to root pruning to balance the aerial and terrestrial organs, cut the stem from 80-60 cm, depending on the cultivation area in terms of cold or temperate weather, an opportunity for the growth of buds and sub-branches that form the next skeleton of the tree. Form to provide. (4)